Auxetic Design


We introduce a novel computational method for design and fabrication with auxetic materials. The term auxetic refers to solid materials with negative Poisson ratio — when the material is stretched in one direction, it also expands in all other directions. In particular, we study 2D auxetic materials in the form of a triangular linkage which exhibits auxetic behavior at the macro scale. This stretching, in turn, allows the flat material to approximate doubly- curved surfaces, making it attractive for fabrication. We physically realize auxetic materials by introducing a specific pattern of cuts into approximately inextensible material such as sheet metal, plastic, or leather. On a larger scale, we use individual rigid triangular elements and connect them with joints.

Uniform Auxetics: We study uniform auxetic materials in the form of a flat kinematic linkage, composed of identical equilateral triangles. When deformed into a curved shape, the linkage yields spatially-varying hexagonal openings. Using insights from conformal geometry, we develop a constraint-based optimization system to closely approximates a complex target 3D surface.

Programmable Auxetics: We are developing a computational method for design of novel deployable structures via programmable auxetics, i.e., spatially varying triangular linkage optimized to directly and uniquely encode the target 3D surface in the 2D pattern. The target surface is rapidly deployed from a flat initial state via inflation or gravitational loading.

Bistable Auxetics: We aim to provide a solution to the problem that auxetic deployables need external actuation to stay in the desired shape. Here, we combine the mechanics of planar bistable kirigami with the inverse design pipeline of the programmable auxetics.


Application Case Studies and Fabricated Prototypes

Tigridia Pavilion
Laser cut of natural rubber
Made with etched copper sheet
Made with laser cut aluminum sheet
Made with laser cut leather
Mechanical dimming
Dynamic external shading system
Shading Pavilion 1
Multi-layer shading system
Shading Pavilion 2
Shading system with hexagonal panels
Decorative Cladding
Decorative hanging structure
Multi-layer furniture
Deployable Dome
Inflatable architecture
Mars Habitat
Inflatable habitat
Inflated Shell
Hybrid shell with support beams
Heart Stent
Personalized medical implant

Press Coverage

In English:

In German:

In French:



Bistable Auxetic Surface Structures

Tian Chen, Julian Panetta, Max Schnaubelt, Mark Pauly

ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH), 2021

Paper Webpage

Beyond Developable: Computational Design and Fabrication with Auxetic Materials

Mina Konaković, Keenan Crane, Bailin Deng, Sofien Bouaziz, Daniel Piker, Mark Pauly

ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH), 2016

Paper Webpage

Rapid Deployment of Curved Surfaces via Programmable Auxetics

Mina Konaković-Luković, Julian Panetta, Keenan Crane, Mark Pauly

ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH), 2018

Paper Webpage

Computational Design of Deployable Auxetic Shells

Mina Konaković-Luković, Pavle Konaković, Mark Pauly

Advances in Architectural Geometry 2018

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